Bruce, M. & Shade, R. (1996, January) Classroom-Tested Guidance Activities for Promoting Inclusion. School Counselors. 43(3) 224
This article examines classroom guidance designed to install positive attitudes for students with and without disabilities towards any disability that is discussed. The activities in this article are designed to provide to increase student and teacher empathy and have potential to enhance positive interactions among students. There are several activities for a plethora of disabilities including orthopedic impairments. The article also addresses using students in the class who are comfortable discuss their disability as a resource for students who are not knowledgeable about the subject. It also explores the guidance counselors role in promoting inclusivity specifically through taking surveys about students reactions before and after the activities.
Macfarlane, C. (n.d.). Is special education making a difference? . Retrieved November 14, 2012, from
This article examines the traditional purpose of a school system and its goal to prepare future citizens to live, work, and play within a community. However, the system for delivering information and education to students has not always been fair for students who do not learn, speak, hear, see, move, or behave like the majority. Special education grew out of respect for these individuals and their learning process. Although the current special education system has the best at heart for students with disabilities, it is outdated and needs reform based on the fact that employment rates after school for students with disabilities is incredibly high. The author suggests that a redefinition of best practice is in order. The collaborative effects of business, economics, and society are needed for this evaluation. Finally, the research methodologies must provide answers and practical steps to school systems about steps to take.
Reschly, D. (1996). Identification and assessment of students with disabilities. Retrieved November 14, 2012, from http://futureofchildren.org/futureofchildren/publications/docs/06_01_02.pdf
This article explores funding for schools and students with disabilities. Students have to qualify for disabilities for the schools to qualify to receive government funding. Reschley identifies a universal issue that special education classification is not uniform across the states. Students with similar disabilities to not receive equal treatment if their school system does not recognize their disability. Although most orthopedic impairments are recognized by a family physician, some students are not identified until school. This is disproportionately represented in minority populations like African Americans and Latinos. This article suggests a revised funding system that weighs four major factors: numbers of deficits, degree of discrepancy complexity of intervention, and intensity of intervention. This would be represented in a regression equation that would yield a total amount of dollars available to support the special education of a student.
Straker, L. M., Campbell, A. C., Jensen, L. M., Metcalf, D. R., Smith, A. J., Abbott, R. A., ... & Piek, J. P. (2011). Rationale, design and methods for a randomized and controlled trial of the impact of virtual reality games on motor competence, physical activity, and mental health in children with developmental coordination disorder. BMC public health, 11(1), 654. Retrieved November 14, 2012, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/pmc/articles/PMC3166932/pdf/1471-2458-11-654.pdf
Children with Orthopedic Impairments are far behind in motor development. Previously, video games did not offer much advancement in motor development. However, with the rise of virtual reality game, video games now may enhance motor development and lead to an increase in motor coordination. This article gives an overview of recent research done to answer the question of whether or not virtual reality video games increase motor development. The authors conducted a study in which children were examined using video games for a period of 16 weeks. Following each screening, the children were asked to perform tasks that tested their motor development. The knowledge gained from this study will allow researchers to understand the potential of active virtual reality games to provide children with the motor development and physical activity necessary for a healthy start to life.
Swinehart-Jones, D., & Heller, K. W. (2009). Teaching Students With Severe Speech and Physical Impairments a Decoding Strategy Using Internal Speech and Motoric Indicators. The Journal of Special Education, 43(3), 131-144. Retrieved November 14, 2012, from http://sed.sagepub.com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/content/43/3/131
This article discusses research on methods for teaching students with severe speech and physical impairments because these students often struggle to acquire literacy skills. The authors first discuss the issues posed to literacy by these severe impairments. They suggest teaching with a decoding strategy using internal speech and motoric indicators. They tested to see if the students could use the strategy to identify 10 words and to independently use that strategy when encountering unknown words in connected text during typical classroom reading. The students who had cerebral palsy and dysarthric speech were taught to use the three-step decoding strategy. They concluded that repeatedly teaching the students to use the decoding strategy resulted in their learning the words and being able to apply the strategy to unknown words when reading connected text.
Rapp, Whitney H., & Arndt, Katrina L. (2012). Teaching Everyone: An introduction to inclusive education. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.